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Język angielski, matura 2016 - poziom dwujęzyczny - pytania i odpowiedzi

DATA: 6 maja 2016 r.
CZAS PRACY: 180 minut
Formuła od 2015 "nowa matura".

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Zadanie 1. (0–4)
You are going to hear three people talking about internships. For questions 1.1.–1.4., choose the right speaker (A–C). One speaker must be chosen twice. You will hear the recording twice.
Which speaker says that
Zadanie 1.1.
doing an internship created opportunities for him/her to make good connections?
Zadanie 1.2.
strict control over companies offering paid internships is necessary to safeguard quality?
Zadanie 1.3.
charging for internships is compensation for loss of business efficiency?
Zadanie 1.4.
a paid internship was not an option he/she considered while studying?
Zadanie 2. (0–6)
You are going to hear two texts. For questions 2.1.–2.6., choose the answer which best matches what you have heard. Questions 2.1.–2.3. are for Text 1, questions 2.4.–2.6. are for Text 2. You will hear the recording twice.
Text 1
Zadanie 2.1.
From Bogard’s answer to the first question we learn that
Zadanie 2.2.
Which of the following is stated in the interview as an opinion, not a fact?
Zadanie 2.3.
What does Bogard mention as a factor causing sleep deprivation?
Text 2
Zadanie 2.4.
The speaker uses the term “hedonic treadmill” to draw attention to the fact that
Zadanie 2.5.
The research findings show that
Zadanie 2.6.
In his talk, the speaker
Zadanie 3. (0–5)
You are going to hear an interview about scrapbooks. Based on what you hear, complete each gap (3.1.–3.5.) with up to six words so that the summary of the interview is logical and consistent with the recording. You will hear the recording twice.
By quoting the numbers at the beginning of the interview, Ellen wants to draw attention to the 3.1 __________________ we experience nowadays.
However, she points out that this phenomenon is nothing new. The situation was similar in the 19th century. Today’s practice of 3.2. __________________ from other people’s works began then.
Ellen says that in the 19th century many famous people kept scrapbooks. She gives an example of Mark Twain who 3.3. __________________ for which he earned more money than for some of his writing.
Ellen also draws attention to the fact that 3.4. __________________ did not function then in the same way as today.
She describes a trick used by Mark Twain. When he was writing one of his stories for a magazine, he gave 3.5. __________________ one of the characters. He wanted to make sure he would be easily identified as the author.
Zadanie 4. (0–7)
Read two texts about food. For questions 4.1.–4.7., choose the answer that best matches the text.

Text 1


I find it difficult to describe what British cooking is really like. The adjectives commonly used are ‘good’ and ‘plain’, with the latter being used as an insult as much as a compliment, sometimes with some justification. Yet, plain food cannot be bettered if its quality is right and the freshness palpable. And British food certainly wasn’t all that plain for most of its history! An interesting question to ponder is how the inherently conservative people of the British Isles have come to accept and encourage influences from all round the world throughout centuries, and still do so at an ever-increasing rate. You have only to consider that one entire generation believes that the Chinese take-away, tandoori chicken, spaghetti, kebabs and hamburgers they love so much are all British. The generation just older than them will think longingly of British cooking as baked apples and sweet cured hams, of the mellowness of cinnamon and the bite of cloves in baking, and of peppery beef stews, without ever realizing that the ingredients which make them so special – the spices – are all imported from far-away eastern lands.

The earliest cooked food in Britain was meat roasted over flames, and gruels of grains, sometimes flavoured with vegetables and herbs. The first contact with spices was during the long Roman occupation, but when the Romans left and the Dark Ages cast their pall over Europe, the British returned to a less sophisticated style of food. The most monumental change came with the last successful invasion of these shores by the Duke of Normandy. As well as introducing new and more luxurious styles of cooking, the Normans also gave us many new words for food, for instance pork and beef. And after the Normans came the Crusaders who reintroduced spices to Britain and also brought with them sugar, dried fruit and rose water. Over the centuries, the rise and fall of a dozen empires and kingdoms have made their contribution to British food. For generations Britain has taken what has been offered, chewed it over and kept what it liked the most.

I hope you will be surprised at this book. When gathering material, I was certainly surprised many times. For instance, at how quickly foods which have been common for centuries can disappear. Why did we stop using rose water about 60 years ago, or flavouring our custards with bay leaf or orange? Is it a silly snobbishness that led to the virtual disappearance of the once envied British puddings based on breadcrumbs?

I hope you will use the recipes included in this book judiciously, altering the proportion of ingredients as it suits you – but without moving away from the spirit of the dish. Spirit seems to me to be the great link between the extraordinarily different styles of British food. Through this book we can follow in our predecessors’ footsteps with respect and with the lightness of our own touch.
adapted from The Cooking of the British Isles by Glynn Christian
Zadanie 4.1.
In the first paragraph the writer implies that
Zadanie 4.2.
Which of the following sentences is TRUE?
Zadanie 4.3.
The author of the text
Text 2

Lillian loved best the moment before she turned on the lights. She would stand in the restaurant kitchen doorway, rain-soaked air behind her, and let the smells come to her – ripe sourdough yeast or garlic, mellowing as it lingered. Lillian breathed in, feeling the smells move about and through her, even as she searched out those that might reveal whether the new assistant chef was still double-dosing the curry in the dishes. She was. The girl was good enough with knives, but some days, Lillian thought with a sigh, it was like trying to teach subtlety to a thunderstorm

Tonight was Monday, a cooking class night. Lillian’s students arrived with a variety of motivations, some drawn by a yearning as yet unmet to hear murmured culinary compliments, others trying to find a cook rather than become one. A few participants who had been given the course as a gift, had no desire for lessons at all, arriving as if on a forced march to certain failure; they knew their cakes would always be flat, their cream sauces filled with small, disconcerting pockets of flour. And then there were those students who seemingly had no choice, who could no more stay out of a kitchen than a kleptomaniac could keep her hands in her pockets. They fantasized about leaving their corporate jobs and becoming chefs with an exhilarating mixture of guilt and pleasure. They always came early and stayed late. If Lillian’s soul sought out this last group, it was only to be expected, but in truth, she found them all fascinating. 

It was during her early years that Lillian discovered cooking. After her father left, housework became for Lillian’s mother a travel destination rarely reached; laundry, a friend one never remembered to call. Lillian picked up these skills by following her friends’ mothers around their homes, while the mothers pretended not to notice, dropping hints about bleach or changing a vacuum bag as if it were just one more game children played. Lillian learned, and soon developed a certain domestic routine. But it was the cooking that occurred in her friends’ homes that fascinated Lillian the most – the aromas that started calling to her just when she had to go home in the evening. 

Lillian liked thinking about smells. She often remembered the time Margaret’s mother had let her help with a white sauce, playing out the memory in her head the way some children try to recover, bit by bit, the moments of a favourite birthday party. Margaret had pouted, because she was never allowed to help in the kitchen, but Lillian had ignored all twinges of loyalty and climbed up on the chair and stood, watching the butter melt across the pan like the farthest reach of a wave sinking into the sand. Then she gazed at the flour, at first a hideous, clumping thing destroying the image until it was stirred with Margaret’s mother’s hand over Lillian’s on the wooden spoon when she wanted to mash the clumps, moving slowly, in circles until the flour-butter became smooth and until again the image was changed by the added milk. Each time Lillian thought that the sauce could hold no more, that it would break into solid and liquid, but it never did.
adapted from The School of Essential Ingredients by Erica Bauermeister
Zadanie 4.4.
The phrase “it was like trying to teach subtlety to a thunderstorm” used in the 1st paragraph implies that the assistant chef
Zadanie 4.5.
When describing Lillian’s students, the narrator mentions some people who
Zadanie 4.6.
After Lillian’s father left,
Zadanie 4.7.
In the last paragraph, we learn about
Zadanie 5. (0–4)
Read the article. Four fragments have been removed from the text. Complete each gap (5.1.–5.4.) with the fragment which fits best and put the appropriate letter (A–E) in each gap. There is one fragment which you do not need to use.

adapted from Time, 2006
The Etruscans prized amber as highly as gold. The Greeks mythologized it as the tears of Apollo’s daughters, solidified when they cried for their brother. Cultures stretching from Central America to the Far East, from the Mediterranean to Scandinavia, have used it both as a powerful medicine and as a medium for exquisite jewellery and fine works of art.

Today, scientists value amber even more than artists. 5.1. And unlike ordinary fossils, which are relatively crude rock molds of prehistoric life forms, these specimens are often perfectly preserved, with the most delicate features intact.
Recently David Grimaldi, an entomologist of New York City’s Museum of Natural History, has announced a discovery he calls ‘scientifically the most important of all amber fossils’. 5.2. That makes them the oldest intact plants ever found in a piece of amber, and an important clue to the origin of the plants that now dominate the earth.
The resin that eventually turns into amber comes from a variety of ancient trees, mostly conifers, including pines and extinct relatives of sequoias and cedars, but also some deciduous trees. It probably evolved as a defense against wood-boring insects. As it dripped down the bark, it acted like flypaper and encapsulated them, hermetically sealing the trees’ wounds at the same time. Apart from these creatures, which must have been its target, the resin would also trap anything else that happened to stumble into it. 5.3. Thanks to this abundance of samples surely some important insights into the workings of natural selection can be revealed.
As anybody who has seen the film Jurassic Park knows, plants and animals sealed in amber are a potential source of prehistoric DNA. Scientists have extracted genetic material from, among other things, a 17 million-year-old magnolia and a 120 million-year-old beetle. Yet, no serious biologist believes it will ever be possible to clone a dinosaur from just a few bits of DNA. Even so excellent a preservative as amber apparently can’t keep DNA from breaking down into fragments that may be scientifically interesting but are biologically inert. 5.4. One thing is certain, though. Whereas for artists any piece of amber is an uncut gem, for scientists only ones with a sample of a prehistoric life form trapped inside are exciting.
Removed fragments

A. He claims that the specimens found are exquisite. It is a sample with three tiny buds, probably from an oak tree, that date to the age when dinosaurs walked the continent.

B. Why is it so? Trapped within translucent, usually gold-coloured tree resin are some of the most ancient examples of certain species known to science: the oldest ants, moths, stingless bees and caterpillars, some of them dating back tens of millions of years.

C. Some trees fell and ended up buried in these soft sediments accumulated at the bottom of still bodies of water. There, over millions of years, the molecules of resin gradually amalgamated into long, durable chains, creating a material remarkably similar to plastic.

D. That’s one reason why many researchers doubt the claims of California scientists who announced last year that they had managed to retrieve bacteria preserved in amber for 25 million years.

E. Rotten luck for them, but extraordinary good fortune for evolutionary biologists. In one major deposit – a site in New Jersey whose location is closely guarded – a team of volunteers have found nearly 100 previously unknown ancient species of plants and animals.
Zadanie 6. (0–4)
Read the text. For questions 6.1.–6.4. choose the appropriate paragraph and put the corresponding letter (A–E). One paragraph does not match any of the questions.
In which paragraph does the author
Zadanie 6.1.
quote a figure which some consider too low to be proud of?
Zadanie 6.2.
refer to a way of showing disapproval of the growing gap in society?
Zadanie 6.3.
point to some people’s boastful attitudes to a challenge?
Zadanie 6.4.
mention considerable costs home buyers are expected to bear?

A. It’s hard to pinpoint the exact moment when San Francisco morphed into bizarro-world New York, when it became, in many ways, more New York-ish than New York itself − its wealth more impressive, its infatuation with power and status more blinding. Maybe it was when, after the crash, bonus-starved Wall Street bankers started quitting their jobs and flocking to the Bay Area in droves to join the start-up gold rush. Or maybe it was when San Francisco was announced to have the least affordable mortgage rates in the country.

B. It’s no secret that New York is having a bit of an identity crisis these days. Wall Street lost its swagger during the crash and hasn’t gotten it back. Big banks are adding employees in Salt Lake City while cutting them in Manhattan. New York City’s budget experts expect the city to add only 67,000 jobs next year, a sluggish number that faster-growing cities like Denver and Austin will look upon with pity. The city’s culture seems to be changing, too: uniformity and neutrality are in, high heels and striped suits are out; junior bankers now get Saturdays off; “work-life balance” is no longer synonymous with laziness.

C. Meanwhile, certain pockets of San Francisco have become the sort of gilded playground that New York once was. Paper millionaires spend their nights at the Battery, a members-only club with a tech-heavy roster and a $10,000-per-night penthouse suite. Upscale restaurants pop up at regular intervals, each with a more elite clientele and a hipster menu − everything from avocado and goat cheese toast to fancy dinners including sustainable seafood.

D. In many ways, San Francisco is the nation’s new success theater. It’s the city where dreamers go to prove themselves − the place where just being able to afford a normal life serves as an indicator of courage and ability. I had lunch the other day with a Harvard Business School student who belonged to a 90-person section, of whom 12 were start-up entrepreneurs. You can imagine the whole dozen packing their bags for the West Coast after collecting their MBAs, conceitedly thinking: I can make it there. And if I make it there, I’ll make it anywhere.

E. San Francisco hasn’t pulled off this transition effortlessly. The city still has its lefty legacy, after all, and as the tech sector has grown into an economic powerhouse, so has resentment toward its elites. Residents, angry about the rising costs and widening inequality, are blockading tech-employee shuttles in the streets. San Francisco Mayor Ed Lee, long suspected of being in the tech industry’s pocket, is accused of not doing enough to help the working class cope with the problems of the local economy. Silicon Valley is exploding, as Wall Street did in the 1980s and as Detroit did in the 1940s. And as in those booms, not everyone is going along for the ride.

adapted from http://nymag.com
Zadanie 7. (0–5)
Read the text. For questions 7.1.–7.5., choose the word or phrase which fits best in each gap.

adapted from www.theguardian.com
The average price of a property in London 7.1. by more than a quarter over the past twelve months, a rate of growth unequalled since 1987, according to the latest figures from Nationwide Building Society (which is a British financial institution and the largest building society in the world).
Actually, the prices 7.2. by 25.8% between the first quarter of 2014 and the same period in 2015, pushing the average to £400,404. This is the first time it has topped £400,000 and it is 30% higher than the peak reached in 2007.
The figures are likely to 7.3. fears of a price bubble in the capital. The data, which is based on mortgages approved by Nationwide and adjusted to reflect the cost of a typical house, showed double-digit growth in all London boroughs.
The Bank of England doesn’t intend to take any immediate 7.4. to constrain the housing market.
Instead, it has announced a wait-and-see approach. However, it recommends 7.5. if borrowers can still afford repayments if interest rates rise by 3%.
Zadanie 8. (0–5)
Read the text. For questions 8.1.–8.5., use the word given in brackets to form a word that fits the gap. The text must be logical and correct in both grammar and spelling.

adapted from www.wisegeek.com
Pantomime is a popular form of theatrical entertainment 8.1.(CHARACTER) by wordless storytelling.
This art form is sometimes 8.2.(COMPANY) by music in the background to make for a dramatic performance.
The stories are often based on nursery rhymes with stock characters that sing, dance and perform dressed in elaborate costumes. Pantomime actors make gestures and use 8.3.(EXPRESS) facial or bodily movements to communicate, rather than speech.
This form of dramatic technique has its roots in ancient Greece, but is now popular in many different locations in theaters, street performances, and dance studios.

The term pantomime is often used 8.4.(INTERCHANGE) with the word mime. Both words can be used to describe either the performance or the performer himself. In general, though, the word mime is most commonly used to describe the performer, while the word pantomime is used to define the performance.
8.5.(REGARD) of which word is used, performances are often placed into two style categories: the narrated story or the silent story.
Zadanie 9. (0–5)
For questions 9.1.–9.5., complete the second sentence so that it is as similar in meaning as possible to the first sentence and it is correct in both grammar and spelling. Use the word given. Do not change the word given. Use up to six words including the word given.
Zadanie 9.1.
It is believed that the Prime Minister is trying to establish good relations with the opposition.
The Prime Minister is believed an effort to establish good relations with the opposition.
Zadanie 9.2.
If we hadn’t persevered, we wouldn’t have achieved our goal.
our perseverance, we wouldn’t have achieved our goal.
Zadanie 9.3.
Unfortunately, two months from now holidays will be over.
Unfortunately, holidays in two months’ time.
Zadanie 9.4.
It is very unlikely that John will be given a pay rise soon.
There is little given a pay rise soon.
Zadanie 9.5.
Organising this drama performance was Miss Gill’s idea.
It was Miss Gill the idea of organising this drama performance.
Zadanie 10. (0–15)
Choose one of the topics below and write a composition following the conventions of the genre indicated in the topic. Use between 300 and 350 words.
1. „Inteligentne domy” to takie, w których instalacje i urządzenia (np. oświetlenie, temperatura, klimatyzacja) sterowane są automatycznie. Czy zamieszkanie w takim domu to dobry pomysł? Napisz rozprawkę, w której wyrazisz swoją opinię na ten temat, odnosząc się do następujących aspektów:
• wygody
• kosztów
• bezpieczeństwa.

2. Studiujesz na uczelni za granicą i chcesz założyć koło zainteresowań dotyczące dziedziny, którą się pasjonujesz. Napisz list do władz uczelni, w którym przedstawisz swoje dotychczasowe doświadczenia w tej dziedzinie, nakreślisz zakres planowanych działań i omówisz korzyści dla uczelni wynikające z wdrożenia tego pomysłu.

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